Born Neville O'Reilly Livingston, April 10, 1947, in Kingston, Jamaica; son of Thaddeus Livingston. Addresses: Record company-- Shanachie Records, 37 East Clinton St., Newton, NJ 07860.

Bunny Wailer, named by Newsweek as one of the three most important musicians in world music (along with Nigeria's King Sunny Ade and Brazil's Milton Nascimento), is an enigmatic figure in the world of reggae. During his ten years as a member of the original Wailers, he was acknowledged as a songwriting equal to reggae greats Bob Marley and Peter Tosh and was often described as the finest singer of the trio. Yet when the group disbanded in 1973 and Tosh and Marley went on to world acclaim, Wailer disappeared into the hills of Jamaica. For three years he was scarcely seen or heard from. Rumors proliferated about his ascetic existence and passionate study of the principles of the Rastafarian religion. But when he reemerged to record again, Wailer proved that he had not lost touch with the rhythms that moved the people; his albums were masterful blends of sociopolitical commentary and infectious, danceable melodies. After the untimely deaths of Marley and Tosh, Wailer was looked to as the elder statesman of reggae. He has refused to exploit or even acknowledge that status, however, preferring to remain focused on his own vision of what his life and music should be.

Wailer was born Neville O'Reilly Livingston in Kingston, Jamaica, but spent most of his early childhood in the idyllic rural village of Nine Miles. There he acquired a nickname, "Bunny," and a best friend, Bob Marley. The boys grew up as brothers, their bond growing even tighter when Marley's mother and Wailer's father moved together to Jamaica's largest city, Kingston. Although the ghetto in which they lived, called Trenchtown, was one of the world's poorest and most violent, Wailer perceived it as a magical place. Like Hollywood, it was full of stars and would-be stars. The two boys were no exception. Listening to rhythm and blues on New Orleans radio, they dreamed of making music; they fashioned crude guitars for themselves out of sardine cans, bamboo, and discarded electrical wire. When they met another local youth, Peter Tosh, who owned a real guitar, they happily expanded their duo to a trio. By 1966, their biggest dream had come true--they were offered, and signed, a recording contract.

Wailer, Marley, and Tosh were first known as the Teenagers, then the Wailing Rudeboys, which became the Wailing Wailers, and finally just the Wailers. Somewhere along the way, Bunny adopted the group's name as his own surname. From the start, and through all their various incarnations, the Wailers were a hit in Jamaica. As the music evolved from rollicking ska to rock-steady to reggae, they were always in the forefront. The three members considered themselves equals, alternating leads; Wailer's sweet tenor was featured on a cover version of Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone," as well as on his own compositions "Dancing Shoes," "Dreamland," and many others. In fact, he composed some of the group's most enduring tunes, including "One Love," "Who Feels It Knows It," and "Pass It On." Despite their popular success, though, hastily signed contracts meant that the Wailers made almost no money in their early years, and the group broke up briefly at the start of the 1970s when Wailer was imprisoned for possession of marijuana and Marley went to work on an American assembly line.

When they reunited some two years later, Marley was determined to get them a new contract--one that would give them their due. Accordingly, he sought an alliance with Chris Blackwell, a wealthy white Jamaican whose company, Island Records, was the home of many major rock stars. Blackwell signed the group, despite the prevailing wisdom that reggae would never find an audience beyond Jamaica; the sound was considered too primitive, and the growing influence on the music of Rastafarianism--a religion based on the belief that Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia is the living God who will deliver blacks from oppression and in which the smoking of marijuana is considered a sacrament--was deemed entirely too esoteric for mass consumption. But Blackwell's faith in the Wailers proved justified; with his promotional efforts, the albums Catch a Fire and Burnin' were enthusiastically received and have since become classics.

But Blackwell was also instrumental in the undoing of the original Wailers, grooming Marley to be the star of the group rather than one of three equals, which was reflected in the renaming of the band--to Bob Marley and the Wailers. This was unacceptable to Tosh, and Wailer had reservations about it as well; moreover, he found the world tours arranged by Blackwell virtually unbearable and longed to return to Jamaica. In 1972 Wailer founded his own label, Solomonic Records, and cut a few singles; in 1973, he broke entirely with Blackwell and Island, as did Tosh. Marley and Tosh went on to solo success, but Wailer retired to a reclusive life in the country, contemplating all that had happened. His reputation as a mystic with supernatural powers grew from 1973 to 1976, a period in which he recorded no music and was rarely seen.

Then, in 1976, Wailer made a sudden and surprising reappearance. Backed by Marley, Tosh, and the new Wailers band, he released Blackheart Man on the Island label. Hailed as a masterpiece, the album's cryptic lyrics solidified Wailer's image as a shaman of sorts, and he continued in his elusive ways; he did not perform in public again until after Marley's death, on May 11, 1981. But his stage comeback was quite spectacular: he organized the 1982 Christmas Day Youth Consciousness Festival in Kingston, featuring himself, Tosh, reggae notables Jimmy Cliff, Marcia Griffiths, Judy Mowatt, and the Wailers band, and performed a stunning three-hour set, the other performers backing him in turn. Just as astonishing was his decision, in 1987, to venture from Jamaica for the first time in 14 years. The occasion was a solo performance at Madison Square Garden to support his Rootsman Skanking album. Although the concert was his debut at the stadium--and went virtually unpromoted--Wailer played to a sellout crowd.

Wailer continues to release music and perform, but only when the time seems right to him. The Liberation album, for example, was scheduled for release in the late 1980s, but he held it back in favor of the lighter, more dance-oriented Rule Dance Hall; when Wailer did unveil Liberation, it proved strangely prophetic, foretelling the release from prison of African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela and the fall of the Berlin Wall just months before those events occurred. His seeming gift of clairvoyance aside, Wailer's earthly performances and recorded output--insightful, morally uncompromising, and consistently enjoyable--have demonstrated that his music is rightly hailed as among the best of reggae's past and present.

by Joan Goldsworthy

Bunny Wailer's Career

With Bob Marley and Peter Tosh, founded group the Wailers (originally known as the Teenagers, then the Wailing Rudeboys, then the Wailing Wailers), mid-1960s; established Solomonic Records, 1972; recorded and performed with the Wailers until 1973; solo artist, 1973--.

Bunny Wailer's Awards

Grammy Award and NAACP Image Award nominations, both 1989, both for Liberation.

Famous Works

Further Reading


Visitor Comments Add a comment…

over 14 years ago

Greetings Bunny. I feel honoured to have this rare opportunity to scrible something for your eye. How I wish you could find your way to Africa especially Zambia formerly Northern Rhodesia and meet old natives of the land where you belong! I suppose if you contacted the Zambia Musical Association they will grant you an opportunity ever to coome and peform in Zambia at the old age you have reached and also have the opportunity to meet first president of Zambia Dr Keneth David Kaunda. Kaunda would be grateful to meet an icon musician african in dispora like you who has been influencial in the liberation of africans even today through a unique gifted means that will permanently whisper to the world even after this generation. Keep I in your memory and keep in touch. Lets live to testfy of diginity and nature of character of real africans wherever we are. Mwina hamba!

almost 15 years ago

Hi! I am a Norwegian author (, and a hard core Peter Tosh fan. I want to go to Jamaica to write a book inspired by this journey and the life and music of Peter Tosh. It would be fantastic if I could meet with Bunny Wailer, talk & make an interwiew. Anyone out there who knows a way to get in contact either with Wailer or his management? Thanks! : )

almost 15 years ago

nice piece. a correction - the madison square garden appearance was in 1986, not 1987. also "tough gong" is "tuff gong". peace and love.

almost 16 years ago

Hiya my name is Rosie Mccourt, i live in West Belfast in Northern Ireland. Im a 41yr old women. I was raised listening to Reggae at home, and to this day im facinated by the wailers. I saved very hard for a very long time to go to jamaica which i did in july this year, but because of unforseen circumstances my time there was a disaster. Iv always wanted to meet Bunny Wailer, i think he is incredible. Im sure this is probably the wrong channel to go through, but if possible could i get an email address to contact Bunny, or give him my email address. If this is not the right site to go through to contact Bunny personally could you please put me in the right direction. I await your reply. Yours Sincerly Rosie Mccourt.