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Members include Sly Dunbar (born Lowell Fillmore Dunbar on May 10, 1952, in Kingston, Jamaica); Robbie Shakespeare (born on September 27, 1953, in Kingston, Jamaica). Addresses: Record company--Mango Records, 400 Lafayette St., New York, NY 10003.

Drummer Sly Dunbar and bassist Robbie Shakespeare are modern masters of rhythm. According to one estimate, the two musicians have contributed their distinctive rhythms to an estimated 200,000 recorded tracks, most of them in the Jamaican reggae style. Constantly active musically, Dunbar and Shakespeare have recorded under the Sly and Robbie name, released recordings by other artists on their own Taxi label, and contributed to recordings for other producers on other labels, both in and beyond the reggae field.

Lowell Fillmore Dunbar (later called Sly, it is said, because of his admiration for the music of Sly and the Family Stone) and Robbie Shakespeare were both born in Kingston, Jamaica, and grew up on its mean but musical streets. Dunbar was born May 10, 1952, and Shakespeare on September 27, 1953. Dunbar grew up practicing the drums on empty food cans and on his school desk. He dropped out of school when he was 15 to play drums for a living. "That's all I ever wanted to do," he told the London Independent. Shakespeare studied bass with the early reggae player Family Man Barrett, and he too had become an experienced musician while still in his teens.

Dunbar and Shakespeare separately played and recorded with various groups in the early 1970s and admired each other's work before they ever met. One night in 1974 they were performing with different bands at the rival clubs Evil People and Tit for Tat, which were next door to each other in Kingston. On breaks, each went to check on the other's playing, and the two then fell into conversation and ended up talking for hours. "From the first time we played together we clicked musically," Dunbar told the Independent. "It was like magic. He knew what I was going to do and I knew what he was going to do."

Since then, according to both Dunbar and Shakespeare, they have not spent more than three weeks apart. "To be honest," Dunbar told the Independent, "if I could just wake up, go to the studio with Robbie and come home and go to bed, I would be happy. That's all I really want to do." Though they have had girlfriends and wives, they have remained devoted to the music they make with each other; the key to their incredible productivity lies partly in the chemistry of their personal relationship.

It didn't take reggae producers long to hear the distinctive sounds created when the pair played together; the first recorded document of the partnership was Jimmy Cliff's 1975 LP Follow My Mind. An early indication of their ability to adapt to non-reggae styles came that year when they produced and appeared on an album by French vocal star Serge Gainsbourg. Within the next two years, the Sly and Robbie sound (they also became known as the Riddim Twins) was nearly everywhere on recordings that are now recognized as classics of reggae's golden age, such as Peter Tosh's Legalize It and a series of recordings by the group Black Uhuru. Dunbar and Shakespeare toured with Tosh in 1978, cementing an image of themselves as a duo in the minds of fans.

That year, the pair began to devote new attention to their own Taxi label, founded by Dunbar and a bandmate several years earlier. Shakespeare told the Los Angeles Times that the primary motivation for the move was artistic: "At that time, we were playing on a lot of hits for other people, so we thought we'd start something on our own, to do what we want to do, play whatever we feel. On our label, there's no one to tell us how to sound." Gregory Isaacs's "Soon Forward," an early Taxi release, topped Jamaican charts and solidified the duo's reputation as hitmakers. Other artists launched by Taxi, such as Ini Kamoze, have also become important figures in Jamaican music. The 1989 album Hitbound! The Revolutionary Sound of Channel One presented a selection of the duo's 1980s work.

The duo's reputation began to spread outside of Jamaica in the 1980s, as artists and producers came calling in search of Dunbar and Shakespeare's services. These ranged from the unorthodox diva Grace Jones, whose Warm Leatherette and Nightclubbing albums were produced by Sly and Robbie, to artists farther afield from the African diaspora, such as the Rolling Stones and even Bob Dylan. Dunbar and Shakespeare have also collaborated on several albums with the avant-garde electronic producer Bill Laswell, and have worked with jazz electronics pioneer Herbie Hancock. Their sound also provided the foundation for some of the folk-Caribbean releases of British star Joan Armatrading.

As Jamaican popular music underwent deep stylistic changes in the 1980s and 1990s as a result of the advent of studio electronics, Sly and Robbie made the shift to electronic rhythms without difficulty. Some observers contended that the new dancehall and ragga styles followed paths already laid down by Sly and Robbie using conventional instruments. A Sly and Robbie rhythm track might take almost any form according to the nature of the production, but Dunbar's characteristic style was a hard-edged groove sometimes described as robotic. In later years Sly and Robbie became as noted for their studio experiments as they had been for their conventional rhythm tracks.

Many of the pair's most experimental ideas were saved for their own Sly and Robbie albums, which appeared with increasing frequency from the early 1980s onward; Sly and Robbie were one of only a few rhythm makers to record and tour as a named act. Some of their albums showcase their work with other artists, while others tend toward innovative rhythm-based music, often in the dub style whose experiments with quotation and timbre have consistently influenced U.S. hip-hop. In the 1990s Sly and Robbie continued as producers and performers on others' albums; U.K. dance hits such as "Tease Me" (Chaka Demus and Pliers, 1993) bore their production imprint.

The beginning of the new millennium saw no slowdown in the duo's activities, with the release of an experimental dub CD of their own ("Dub Fire," 2000), a Jamaican film soundtrack ("Third World Cop"), and a contribution to California rock group No Doubt's Rock Steady CD ("Underneath It All").

In 2004 the pair released Version Born, joining with Killa Priest, N'Dea Davenport, and Tricky on many tracks, including a cover of a Eurythmics song. According to Nigel Williamson in the London Times, the team of artists on this album was "as adventurous as it is stellar." Paul Jackson, in the Asia Africa Intelligence Wire, praised the tracks that feature hip-hop stars Black Thought and Killah Priest, noting that "a tuff vocal delivery best enhances the fat, spartan bass lines of Robbie Shakespeare and the busy-but-never-pretentious drum patterns of Sly Dunbar."

In 2005 Dunbar told Tom Cardy in the Asia Africa Intelligence Wire that their partnership has lasted as long as it has "because of the respect for each other and the love. There's no ego or anything like that. That's the reason." He also said that they didn't fight because they realized they shared a higher goal: "We always remember where we are coming from. Individually we are strong, but together we are stronger."

Summing up his approach to life and to work, Dunbar told Cardy, "Every day is music. The world today is music. Everywhere you go, whatever you do. If you are in a car driving that's like a rhythm in itself. Anything you hear--the wind blowing out of the air conditioning, you can feel the rhythm." He added, "When I'm sleeping I have the radio going, the television going, all the same time. When I wake up, I wake up in rhythm."

by James M. Manheim and Kelly Winters

Sly and Robbie's Career

Performed separately with various reggae bands, late 1960s and early 1970s; recorded together with Jimmy Cliff, 1975; produced recording by French star Serge Gainsbourg, 1975; numerous recordings with Black Uhuru and other top reggae groups, late 1970s and early 1980s; Dunbar founded Taxi label, operated by Dunbar and Shakespeare, 1978-; recorded as Sly and Robbie, 1979-; produced albums by Grace Jones, the Rolling Stones, Bob Dylan, and other non-reggae acts, 1980s; produced several top U.K. dance hits, 1990s; produced soundtrack to film Third World Cop, 2000; have appeared by some estimates on over 200,000 separate tracks.

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